Principles to be mastered in the development and u

2022-08-02
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Principles to be mastered in the development and use of modern cutting tools

with the continuous development of modern metal cutting technology, the understanding of cutting tools is also deepening. Experts suggest that the insiders update the concept of cutting tools, and correctly master the following principles when developing and using tools

1. Cost calculation

generally speaking, the tool cost only accounts for 3% of the total cost of metal cutting

therefore, reducing the cost of the tool itself has little effect on saving the total processing cost. However, the total cost of machining can be greatly reduced by using advanced tools (although the tool cost may increase). Therefore, we should focus on reducing the processing cost per piece rather than the tool cost as the primary goal

2. Tool is a system

everyone working in the IT department knows that a successful computer system is the correct combination of hardware and software, and the synchronous update of hardware and software is very important. The same way of thinking should be adopted for cutting tools: the tool body and tool collet are hardware, and the indexable blade is software. Therefore, when upgrading the blade technology, the improvement of the tool body and the tool collet must be considered at the same time. And vice versa

example: the blade and tool holder of millshred milling cutter adopt sawtooth design, so that the chip produced by the cutter is small and easy to be discharged from the cutting area

3. It is not only the blade that needs coating

high tech coating can significantly improve the performance of cemented carbide blades, and the tool body can also benefit from the coating. The hard coating on the tool body can prevent the tool body from wearing due to contact with high-speed hot chips, and because the lubricity of the tool body surface is enhanced after coating, the chips can flow more smoothly in the chip holding groove

Clamp the standard tensile sample of corresponding force value on the experimental machine

example: iscar's heliplus series tools are coated with hardtouchcoating on the tool body, which can prolong the service life of the tool body and help to remove chips from the cutting area

4. Development of multi-functional tools for multi task machine tools the development of multi task machine tools has had an unprecedented and significant impact on the improvement of the minimum yield of contraction stress required for the thin aquapro 37 to achieve reliable waterproof sealing effect. However, the increase of spindle, turret and rotating shaft on the machine tool also reduces and limits the space and quantity of tool configuration. In order to adapt to this change, a tool chuck can be equipped with several multi-functional blades, which can complete surface turning, inner diameter turning, outer diameter turning, drilling, lifting the piston with the connecting rod hinged with the cross plate to drill step holes, internal thread processing and other processing without changing the tool. The innovative application of various specially designed multi-functional tools can play a great role in giving full play to the machining flexibility of multi task machine tools

example: the multi-functional tool composed of a group of HSK tool collets and tool adapters is very suitable for multi task machine tools with limited tool magazine or turret space. The multi-function tool can also reduce the tool change and the related processing auxiliary time. 5. modular tool shanks are conducive to lean production

in order to maintain the number of tool varieties and specifications at a manageable level, modular tool shanks that can adapt to various interchangeable solid carbide cutting heads should be considered. Because the cutting head can be easily replaced or exchanged when the tool handle is clamped on the machine tool, the tool loading time can be shortened. A set of modular long tool shanks can enable the tool to reach the deep groove or the bottom of the mold cavity for processing, which has better processing economy than using the overall cemented carbide tool that can cover the same processing range. Another advantage of modular steel tool shanks is that they can better absorb the impact force (such as the impact force caused by the non concentricity of turning tools and lathe spindles), while cemented carbide tool shanks are easier to be damaged in this case

example: ballplus milling system is composed of a group of cylindrical and conical modular tool shanks and five different milling inserts, which can replace and rotate the milling head when the tool chuck is still clamped on the machine tool

6. Power consumption cannot be ignored

tool manufacturers are working hard to develop tool products that can reduce the power consumption of machine tools. In addition to saving energy (which is more important now than in the past), tools with small power demand for machine tools usually have a longer service life, less wear and strain on machine tool spindles and guide rails, and less vibration. A good example is that boring cutters that require less torque allow the use of longer boring bars without loss of machining accuracy

it would be a great oversight not to mention the power consumption when discussing any new tools. A 10% reduction in tool cutting force is likely to increase tool life by 50%

example: the heliturn turning blade adopts a double-sided spiral cutting edge and is clamped tangentially by the tool chuck. The cutting force of this blade design is small, and it can be machined at a feed rate of 1.2mm/r in the traditional turning with a cutting depth of 8mm and the surface turning with a cutting depth of 3.2mm

7. To ensure the correct clamping force

when tightening the clamping screw after the blade is rotated, it is necessary to accurately measure the applied torque value instead of just guessing. Insufficient clamping force may cause blade chatter or it is difficult to maintain the required machining accuracy; Excessive clamping force may cause the blade or groove to break. In order to eliminate the uncertainty of clamping force, the simplest method is to use a torque wrench to tighten the screw. This wrench can automatically display the signal when the clamping force reaches the set level

8. Upgrading the CAM programming software

cnc machining programming does not only give the correct cutting speed and feed rate, but also the tool machining path must match the machining ability of the tool

however, not all CAM software can realize motion programming that can optimize the cutting performance of advanced tools. Therefore, it must be ensured that the programming software you use will not hold you back. At present, the development of programming software lags behind the development of cutting tools. 9. reduce or eliminate vibration

in the real estate industry, the most important factor to determine the commercial value of a house or a piece of real estate is location. For the successful application of cutting tools, the most important determinant is vibration. Generally, the key to reduce or eliminate vibration is to control the cutting force to make it the most stable and rigid element in the machining system. Therefore, the vibration control method must be verified for each machining scheme proposed to change the tool configuration, which is very important for prolonging the tool life, protecting the machine tool spindle and improving the machining surface finish

example: the feedmill end mill uses a triangular positive angle blade to obtain a large circular arc cutting edge. This structural design has good cutting stability, can improve the cutting speed, and the feed rate can reach 3.5mm per tooth

10. Make full use of the indexable value

we should make full use of the full value of the original concept of indexable cutting edges of cemented carbide inserts, develop tool models that can provide the maximum benefit of multiple cutting edges, and ensure that all cutting edges can really play a cutting role. Some tool holders (such as some indexable milling cutter bodies) do not provide protection for each cutting edge, resulting in the failure of one or more blade cutting edges

example: tool manufacturers have developed indexable inserts with up to 8 effective cutting edges. For example, heliocto milling cutter has 8 cutting edges and can hold 2 different types of blades. The tool can be used for surface milling, slope milling, deep shoulder milling, cavity milling, die milling and other milling processes

11. The combination processing method

can improve the processing efficiency, reduce the processing cost, and shorten or omit the processing time and tool change time required by previous separate processing processes

in addition, the tool cost can be reduced due to the reduction of the number of tools required for machining

example: the dual design of finishred milling cutter can combine two different machining processes into one. The cutter has two sawtooth chip holding grooves and two continuous chip holding grooves, which can complete the rough and finish machining of the workpiece at one time

12. Maximize the benefit of coolant

do not use the dirty coolant. Efficiency often determines the success or failure of machining tasks, especially in hole machining. For a bit that can supply coolant, delivering coolant to the cutting edge only completes half of the task, while the other half of the task is how to effectively discharge the chips out of the hole, which means that the flow of coolant and the flow of chips must be considered equally

delivering coolant through the blade is another cooling strategy that can be selected. Even for some machining tools that seem unlikely (such as cutting tools), this cooling method can also be considered

example: the design of the internal cooling channel of the jet cut cutter helps to eliminate the chip buildup. The coolant is directly applied to the cutting area to cool the cutting heat. At the same time, the coolant flowing inside the cutter can cool the blade itself

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